How can we live in the same basket as the serpent? - Andalusian poet Ibn al-Gassal on the fall of Toledo.
Al-Andalus, 1085. The western jewel of Islam had broken into pieces. The petty Taifa emirs who inherited the once-mighty Caliphate squabbled and fought, then paid the Christian lords Parias in ......
Factions from the republics of Firenze and Siena vie for control of medieval Tuscany.
You thirsted for blood, now drink your fill. -Dante
Tuscany, 1259. As wealth from crafts and foreign trade elevated northern Italy's urban families above the landed lords, rivalries within and among their cities hardened into conflict between two great parties. Ghibellines aligned with the Hohenst......